Putting a Problem into Words

I have a problem with my Advanced Baking course that I want to solve. The problem is that the Advanced Baking course is repetitive and needs to be reworked. I’ve spent time talking to the students to find out what they think of the course and how they feel it would be best to improve it. That was stage one of the design process. Now I’ve moved on to stage two which is defining the problem. As I mentioned in my last blog post defining the problem seems very straight forward and easy…but it isn’t. I have struggled this week with looking at it creatively and reframing it.  

To help me with reframing the problem I worked through a few activities to help push my thinking. The first was a list of “5 Whys?”. It helped me identify the root cause of the problem and went something like this.

My Problem is: The advanced baking course needs to be redesigned

Why? Why does the advanced baking course need to be redesigned?

Response 1: It is too similar to the baking course and that makes it repetitive. 

Why? Why is it too repetitive?

Response 2: The units of study are the same in both courses.

Why? Why are the units of study so similar?

Response 3: That was how it was written by the teacher before me.

Why? Why did she write the units of study in this way?

Response 4: She felt that baking should be about cake decorating.

Why? Why did she focus on cake decorating?

Response 5 (my root cause): That was what she was comfortable with.

The second activity was a “Why How Ladder” and it helped me to identify a very abstract common need that addressed all of the needs of the students. Then by asking How for each of the original Why statements I was able to come up with some possible actions that might help solve the problem.

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In the end, I was able to come up with a definition of the problem. A definition that will probably need to be tweaked to perfection over the coming week.

Definition of the Problem
The problem is that the Advanced Baking course is repetitive and does not give the users an opportunity for individualizing the content and choosing the lab experiences that give them the experience they need. The users are high school students who are interested in baking and have already taken introductory coursework in baking which gave them background knowledge and the basic skills needed for baking. The root cause of the problem is that the course has not been rewritten for a long time. It was written by a teacher who was not experienced in all areas of baking so she focused it on her favorite areas. From my point of view, this has turned into a bigger problem than I first imagined. We have to go deeper to fix the underlying problems before we begin to work on the way the course is taught.

Now that the problem has been defined I see a total rewrite of the Baking and Advanced Baking courses beginning with a comprehensive scope and sequence as the first step in correcting the problem. That, of course, is just the first step. The course should be written in a way that encourages individual skill building and student-driven learning. Their success in the future hinges on their ability to continue learning even after they finish the course. They also need customer service skills and a chance to produce baked goods on a larger scale. 

Creativity in Problem Solving

This week I have moved on to exploring the second component of the design process. In this stage, we define the problem. It seems like a very easy, straightforward activity, doesn’t it? I’m here to tell you that looks can be very deceiving. Defining the problem involves sifting through all of the findings from the empathy stage and coming up with an actionable problem statement. It requires me to be more specific about the constraints and details of the problem. To define the problem I will have to look at it from a creative perspective and consider reframing, possibly more than once, to get it just right.

To get into the right frame of mind for this challenge I did a few “warmup” exercises. These exercises helped to get me ready to think creatively and to reframe the problem. To be honest, they were fun too!

Exercise #1: Creating Sniglets

Sniglets are words that don’t appear in the dictionary but that really should. They are created by observing life and creating words for things that don’t already have a word. Here are mine –

Dishspair (dish-spair) – n. The feeling you get when you realize there are more dishes to wash.

Eubakia (yoo-beyk-ee-uh) – n. The euphoric feeling of baking the perfect baked good.

Mindin (min-din) – n. The tiny dinner you have after eating a late heavy lunch.

Exercise #2: Reframing 

In this exercise, I identified a problem, described the problem,  and then I described how reframing it could lead to a better solution.

Original Problem: When I started working at my current job the classroom was not set up in an organized and useful manner. I teach baking and thus I need mixers, ovens, sinks, etc. for all of the workgroups. There were three ovens, three sinks, and six workgroups. 24 students were expected to work in the space at the same time with this limited access to equipment. While there were six stand mixers in the classroom another problem arose on my second day when we plugged them in and turned them on. We flipped a breaker! I was so very frustrated! From conversations with my coworkers, I knew that the district was absolutely not going to buy more ovens or install more sinks. They were also not going to consider limiting the number of students in the classroom. .

Reframed Problem: I had to find a way to make this space work even with all of its “quirks” I talked to the buildings and grounds crew to find out which outlets were connected to different breakers. Then I sat in the middle of the classroom and looked all around me at what was available. I had to change the way I looked at the problem to what I DO have rather than what is missing. Once I reframed it the problem became how can I set up the classroom to make it a working kitchen for 24 students with individual workspaces for each group.

From this reframing experience, I learned that the way I look at a problem has a LOT of impact on the success of the solution. Once I reframed it I was able to set up the room in a very successful format that has worked for us for 3 years. Each year there are small tweaks to the organization of the space but the general layout has been perfect. Truly solving a problem requires us to look at it creatively.

 

 

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Empathy – leading us to better solutions

The baking classes are second-level courses. The students arrive already knowing how to measure, read a recipe, set up mise en place, and the bare-bones basics of baking. While they are in the Baking class they improve on their mise en place, learn the importance of measuring by weight, experiment with ingredients, and gain a solid baking foundation. From there they can move on to Advanced Baking in which they repeat a lot of the same units with simply more complex recipes. It is quite repetitive in nature and needs a style refresh or a different structure.  

I decided last week that applying design empathy to this problem would be a good way to get a student perspective. They were the users of the curriculum and therefore their perspective would give the best clues to how effective it was and how well it was meeting their needs.  We were approaching the very end of the first semester and the Advanced Baking students were finishing up and preparing to move on to a new class. This was the perfect time to ask them to be reflective about their experience and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the program. Since I keep a very relaxed conversational tone in the classroom on a daily basis it is quite natural for me to ask the types of questions that I had in mind.  

I started by giving each student a list of questions to answer and I encouraged them to be brutally honest in their responses. Not all of the students are comfortable speaking their minds aloud in a group setting and I wanted everyone to have input. They were given 24 hours to work on it because class time was really packed with our final bakeshop experience of the semester in full swing.  The surveys came back surprisingly complete. While we worked side by side preparing doughs and batters during the remainder of the week I worked in lots of small group and individual conversations. I was trying to get even more information but I was careful to listen and not lead. Some students were more specific than others but everyone had useful information to share. survey response

The students all felt that they learned a lot in Advanced Baking. They felt that some of the most positive parts of the course were the bakeshop experiences (we take orders from staff once a month and bake to fill the demand) and the freedom to be creative and create new things. Students also identified areas of the course that they felt needed improvement. One of the recurring answers was that students want more time to work on the areas of baking they identify as either their favorites or the ones they need more time to perfect. They felt that they were restricted by the need to follow the predetermined units. 

I wasn’t shocked by any of the responses. I feel much the same way the students do and that is why I identified this problem, to begin with. The course could be so much more effective than it is but I want the students to be part of designing the solution. I am looking forward to the adventure ahead of us as we begin the process of designing a new and improved Advanced Baking course.

Through the eyes of another

Empathy has been the word on my mind for the past two weeks. I’m exploring the process of design and empathy is the first step.  I was surprised at first to find that empathy was stressed in the design process however as I have focused on the topic I have developed respect for its inclusion. “Empathic understanding goes beyond knowledge: when empathizing you do not judge, you ‘relate to [the user] and understand the situations and why certain experiences are meaningful to these people’, a relation that involves an emotional connection” (Kouprie & Visser, 2009). If we don’t begin the process of design by developing an empathic understanding of the people who will be impacted then our final product is unlikely to fulfill it’s intended purpose. We have to understand the WHO of the problem before we can develop a solution.

While I’ve been focused on empathy I’ve looked at situations in a different light. I’ve tried to approach life from the perspective of others and it has been eye-opening. One specific instance was homework time on a typical weeknight. My children are 6 & 8 years old and while the 6-year-old has very little homework the 8-year-old always has a significant amount. Every evening I struggle to get her to sit still and complete the assignments. There are constant reminders and frustration builds until we are both angry. I decided to try to experience the activity from her perspective and see if I could empathize with her side of the story.  You can find a short video of the perspective-taking experiment here.

I learned a lot from experiencing homework time from the perspective of my 8-year-old daughter. First of all, there is way too much happening around her for her to even consider concentrating. There are puppies (Wilbert & Kitkat) begging for attention and needing to go outside. There is a brother sitting close who is doing colorful fun things and he wants to have conversation. There is a mommy in the room who is moving around and typically cooking dinner which has its own sounds and scents designed to distract. How could I possibly expect her to concentrate in the middle of this circus?

While I was recording I had a “homework” assignment in front of me but even though I was looking at it I wasn’t able to concentrate at all and that is where I started to feel empathy. To be honest, I feel terrible for all of the frustration I have unleashed on this poor child on a daily basis.  If I had taken the time to look at it from her perspective I would have saved us both a lot of grief. Homework time has been redesigned as a result of this experience.

My daughter sits in the dining room to do her homework now where it is quieter but close enough for me to answer questions if she has them. The puppies are sent outside to play in our fenced yard while she works and her brother sits in the kitchen to do his work. So far homework time is going a little smoother than in the past. It’s amazing what can happen when you look at things through the eyes of another.

References: 

Kouprie, M. & Visser, F.S. (2009). A framework for empathy in design: stepping into and out of the user’s life. Journal of Engineering Design, 20:5, 437-448. DOI: 10.1080/09544820902875033

Passion, Curiosity, and Questions

I have many passions in life. I’m passionate about being a supportive wife and a great mom. I’m passionate about exploring the world of food and creating new dishes. I’m passionate about sharing my love of food and cooking with everyone around me, including my students.

This week I’ve explored PQ or Passion Quotient, CQ or Curiosity Quotient, and the idea of “Questioning for Life”. I’ve looked at my life and my teaching through the lens of PQ & CQ and created this video to express what I saw.


The most interesting thing I learned this week is that my passions in life are closely connected to my curiosity. When I am passionate about something, I want to learn more about it and see how it works. The passion sparks curiosity and makes me ask questions, more and more questions.

It took me 17 years of teaching to find the perfect job for me, the position where my PQ and CQ are most appreciated.  I feel confident that for me PQ + CQ = the BEST me that I can be. However, I’ve just started my journey to asking great questions. I find the idea of “Questioning for Life” to be an open challenge for the future. “When you find your beautiful question, stay with it. If it’s a question worth pursuing, it will likely also be confounding, frustrating, exhausting” (Berger, 2014, page 215). It sounds challenging, but at the same time, it also sounds worth my time and energy. I’m going to start searching for MY beautiful question.

References:
Berger, Warren. (2014). A more beautiful question: the power of inquiry to spark breakthrough ideas. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc.
 

Who am I?

This is me…


This work is about the obsession that is my life…food. Everything that I do revolves around food. My Google searches lead to recipes and my conversations are about foods that I’ve eaten (or would like to eat). My vacation planning always begins with “Where should we eat?”. Some would say that makes me a glutton but in reality, it’s what makes me really good at my job.

I teach cooking, mostly baking, and that constant immersion in the food world creates a passion for the topic that is energizing to my students. The highest compliment I ever got from a student was proof of this. He told his friend, ” You are so lucky to have Mrs. K. She is the best teacher because she is so passionate about everything in her life, especially food. You’ll make amazing food and you’ll learn a lot.”

BUT, this was not the only version of this artwork. The original work showed a more well-rounded person, not quite so food-centric.  I was quite proud of it but it had to be changed to protect the identity of the young and innocent children in my life. Since this blog is public I chose to adjust my work so their pictures aren’t made public.

This work still shows a lot about my life and I’m still proud of it. While creating it I made the connection between my passion for food and being a great teacher.  That helped me become more comfortable with who I am and developed a better understanding of how the parts of my life are connected.

Solving Wicked Problems

For weeks now I’ve been sharing with you the steps I’ve gone through to identify a wicked problem in my classroom.  It started with a simple session of writing questions, followed by organizing the questions and choosing the most important ones. All of the questions helped to identify the following wicked problem in my classroom: Can I re-imagine my baking curriculum as inquiry-based, driven by student questions, and engaging for all learners?

Once the problem was identified I started to gather data to help in crafting a solution. The first thing I did was to create a survey to gather feedback from fellow teachers.

Data who took the surveyThen I went a step further and spent time searching for and reading research articles related to the problem. Right away the research findings started to allay some of my concerns.  For example, one concern that I had was whether I could cover all of the required topics if I used inquiry-based learning because it can take up a lot of time. It was discovered in one study that “covering less material in inquiry-based sections had no negative effect on students’ later performance” (Kogan & Laursen, 2013).  A website that I found useful, as I was crafting my solution, was the Right Question Institute as it is a wonderful resource for inquiry-based learning.

The following presentation details the entire process, including the final proposed solution. To get the full experience, with voiceover, I suggest following the link to Haiku Deck. By clicking on the audio icon on the bottom of each slide you will be able to hear my thoughts that are in addition to the information on the slide.

The solution proposed in the presentation was the result of a lot of thinking, making changes, and thinking again. I really wanted to create the most thorough solution I could with the hope that it would reduce the hiccups during implementation.  A lot of work up front tends to reduce the problems later on.

The first action step for the students, the creation of their individual questions, was possibly the most difficult to decide upon. In all of the reading that I did, it was suggested that we create the questions as a group. The reason I chose to go my own direction on this is that I have students with anxiety and it would be too stressful for them to do this part of the activity in a group setting. They need the freedom to create questions without pressure. Once they have created their list of questions they get to look back over them and choose their best questions. The “best” questions would be the ones that apply most directly to the topic and would be more likely to help expand the learning on the topic.

From these initial steps, the focus changes from individual work to collaborative work. The students put their questions together on one Google Keep board and organize them in multiple ways to make sure everyone has a thorough understanding of the depth and breadth of the questions. It’s possible that they will gain a better understanding of the topic simply by moving the questions around into different categories.

The most exciting part of the process is choosing the plan of action and following it. The students will be very likely to use a recipe, or recipes, to find their answers. It is important to clarify that students are taught the correct way to manipulate recipes and make substitutions so it is not outside of their abilities to complete research in this way.

It is critical that the final step of the process is not forgotten.  The information is useless if they do nothing with it, so students must create a presentation and share their findings. This has the potential to increase the knowledge of the entire class and the students also get the chance to show off their final products with pride.

I’m very excited to use this in my classroom. We are starting a new unit next week and the topic is cookies. I think it is the perfect time to put the plan into action.

References – 

Kogan, M. & Laursen, S.L. (2014). Assessing Long-Term Effects of Inquiry-Based Learning: A Case Study from College Mathematics. Innovative Higher Education, 39, 183-199. https://doi-org.proxy2.cl.msu.edu/10.1007/s10755-013-9269-9

Rothstein, D & Santana, L (2011). Make Just One Change: Teach Students to Ask Their Own Questions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

The Classroom of My Dreams

My classroom is an afterthought. The single cooking lab that the district had wasn’t enough space they didn’t want to spend money.  Instead, they commandeered the classroom next door and “transformed” it by adding three conventional ovens, three refrigerators, and three sinks. There are typically 24 students using the space at a time, working in six cooking groups. Having three stoves and sinks but six baking groups are inconvenient at best.

Capture

Appliances, equipment, and ingredients have all been strategically distributed around the room to make traffic flow possible when the class is full. We’ve made it so efficient that we even run a bake shop out of this space once a month.

Our current space has been maximized, but our enrollment is climbing. It is possible that in the future there will be a need for not only an upgraded space but a new high school altogether. This is what was on my mind this week when I started exploring experience design. If you aren’t familiar with it yet, experience design is a design practice focused on human outcomes. It is iterative, collaborative, and measurable (Wood, 2018). What experience designers do is look at people and human needs as their first frame of reference for designing. They might be planning a hospital, a shopping experience, or a classroom.

With the idea of the perfect classroom space in mind, I tried my hand at experience design. A few things that I focused on were: space, traffic flow, communication, and incorporating nature.

Dream Classroom 3D view

 As you can see, there is abundant space in the new design. Six team spaces have everything needed for conducting cooking experiments.  There is a conventional stove, a sink, a stand mixer, and a small refrigerator.  There is a tablet on a stand so the team can access their recipe while they work. Also in each team space is a counter table with four chairs so students can roll out big batches of dough when they are cooking or sit and work on their laptops while completing a lesson. They can even sit at the table to taste their work and talk about the next iteration of the recipe.

Traffic flow should not be an issue in this space. With each team working in their own kitchen there will be less need for moving about.  Also, the ingredients are on the rows of shelves in the center of the room where all groups can access them.  The two identical spaces in the back corners are production baking spaces. They are well equipped with two Hobart mixers and two double convection ovens. The three teams on each side of the room will share the nearest baking space to make baked goods, in large quantity, for the bakeshop up front.

3D view #1

All of the walls between the team kitchens are 3.5 feet tall. Just high enough to define the space but short enough to encourage communication amongst the teams. If a problem or question arises in one kitchen, they can ask the other students around them for suggestions. This “community spirit” approach is fostered in my current classroom because I won’t always be around so the students should learn how to use the other resources around them when they are in a bind.

The final focus was on incorporating nature into the classroom. I wasn’t surprised to find out that “Increasing daylight in classrooms has been shown to cut down on absenteeism and improve test scores” (O’Donnell et al., 2010). To bring the outside into the classroom, and also give it a purpose there, I added herbs and edible florals. These plants are beautiful on top of the ingredients shelves, and since they are grown hydroponically, they don’t introduce dirt to the kitchen. There is also a massive skylight above the plants and windows in every kitchen.

3D view #3

This has been a fascinating experience, and I’ve learned a lot from purposefully thinking about the use of space. The design still isn’t perfect, but I intend on continuing to make changes as I pursue studying the cooking experience in my classroom. When they are ready to build a new school, I’ll be prepared with my design.

References – 

All 3D images were created using FloorPlanner.com

O’Donnell Wicklund Pigozzi and Peterson, Architects Inc., VS Furniture., & Bruce Mau Design. (2010). The third teacher: 79 ways you can use design to transform teaching & learning. New York: Abrams.

Wood, T. (2018, July 18). Experience Design: A Definition. Retrieved from https://www.foolproof.co.uk/journal/experience-design-a-definition/

Initial Survey Data

Last week I wrote about my experiences first identifying my wicked problem and then constructing a survey to gather data about it.  To recap, my wicked problem is:  Re-imagining the baking curriculum as inquiry-based, driven by student questions, and engaging for all learners.  My survey began with a question about the respondent’s knowledge of inquiry-based learning.  This question helped to identify the respondents who didn’t have any understanding of the topic vs. those who were well versed in it.  You can see below that 22% of the respondents were unfamiliar with inquiry-based learning.

Data who took the surveyI was concerned at first that this might cause an issue, with suggestions given that didn’t apply to the topic. However, while some of the responses directly related to the workings of inquiry-based learning were a bit off topic, responses to more general issues were quite useful. For example, one respondent who was unfamiliar with inquiry-based learning left a few of the specific questions unanswered but gave an excellent suggestion for engaging the hard to engage students. 

The next bit of the survey that has been gathering interesting data is the question about how to generate “Big Questions.”  I was actually quite torn with how to construct “Big Questions” in my classroom, but this has solidified for me the way they should be created.

Data Pic #1

I was surprised by this data. I didn’t expect it to be unanimous especially since some of the respondents were unfamiliar with inquiry-based learning.

The most useful data so far has been from the open-ended questions. Such as this one about how to teach students to ask better questions.

Data Pic #2

I found it most interesting that one of the respondents suggested the Question-Formulation Technique which I have been recently reading.  This technique has three parts “Produce Your Own Questions, Improve Your Questions, and Prioritize Your Questions” (Rothstein & Santana, p 25).  It was a relief to have my current knowledge and understanding reinforced by someone who has used inquiry-based learning in their classroom.

I also felt that the suggestion to model examples of questions or demonstrate how to ask good questions was quite helpful.  I keep going back and forth in my own understanding on when to teach the students how to ask higher level questions. Since my role during the inquiry-based learning is as facilitator or guide, I shouldn’t be guiding their questions during the inquiry. This comment helped to solidify for me that we should practice the skill of constructing questions BEFORE our first inquiry-based unit. The following youtube video is a useful learning tool to start with.

Not only does it show students the different levels of questions but it tells them which level of questions they should be crafting for an inquiry-based unit. After watching the video, the students can practice writing questions about a practice topic.

When I crafted the survey, I added a question about discouraging students from asking questions. The question had a specific purpose. It would help me gather data about a problem I read about and found troubling.  Some teachers discourage questioning because it makes them feel uncomfortable. Others because there isn’t enough time to cover all of the required curricula if they veer off in search of answers. This is unfortunate because “as kids stop questioning, they simultaneously become less engaged in school” (Berger, p 45)

Data Pic #3

As you can see from the data above this question garnered a range of responses. I’m glad in retrospect that I followed it up with the next question, which helps to clarify the initial responses.

Data Pic #4

I am relieved to see that more than half of the respondents strongly disagree or disagree with discouraging students from asking questions. It is unfortunate that some teachers are unable to give up that bit of control over the classroom and be in a supportive rather than controlling role.

Overall, the initial data is encouraging and has helped me to construct some solutions to my wicked problem, as described above.  I’m looking forward to gathering the remaining data.

References:

Barker, Kelsey. “Instant Inquiry: Level1, 2, and 3 Questions.” YouTube, YouTube, 8 Jan. 2017, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7j6BM002ksk.

Berger, Warren. (2014). A more beautiful question: the power of inquiry to spark breakthrough ideas. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc.

Rothstein, D & Santana, L (2011). Make Just One Change: Teach Students to Ask Their Own Questions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

The Long Road of Planning

In my blog post last week “Challenges In Innovative Technologies” I wrote about my experiences giving feedback on the work of my colleagues from multiple perspectives. The first lens I used while providing feedback was Universal Design for Learning and the second was Intersectionality. At the same time, they were also providing feedback related to my draft of a Learning Experience.

I started my week digging into the feedback provided and weighing the suggestions from my colleagues against my vision of the final learning experience. The feedback was very helpful and gave me new perspectives to work from. Perspectives that I hadn’t considered yet. In the following screenshot, you’ll see that my colleague had questions about the prior knowledge of the students, how they would learn the necessary skills to complete the project, and how in-depth the knowledge of circuits would be for the students. Feedback #1

All of the concerns pointed to areas that needed more thorough explanation in the final iteration of the learning experience.

I still didn’t feel that I was ready to start the final rewrite of my learning experience. Intersectionality had really struck a chord with me, and I wanted to understand it even more thoroughly from an education perspective. Conducting research was the natural next step, so I spent time reading research articles about Intersectionality and how it impacts the educational environment. While I was at it, I also followed another path of curiosity toward creativity as it relates to STEAM.

Finally, I sat down at the laptop and brought the learning plan up.  A huge concern for me as I read through the lesson was that as educational professionals “continue to construct disability as unidimensional, they continue to contribute to the master narrative of disability that shames and marginalizes” (Hernandes, Gutman & Cannon, 2018). It was imperative that I think about the WHOLE student as I revised my plan.

I worked my way through from beginning to end making improvements. I started by adding an expanded schedule of events.  Instead of just stating that the lesson would take 10 days, I broke it down by the number of days each section should take.  This will be helpful to students who need the understanding up front of what lies ahead. Also, in this picture, you will see that I included a list of prerequisite skills so the project should only be assigned to students who already have the proper skills to be successful.Pic 1 of Revisions

The next change was adding a coversheet and blank cake form for the students to use while they designed their cake. The cover sheet gives details that are required for the project. The items they must incorporate to be successful. The blank cake form is just a page with an outline of a cake on it.  The students are expected to make a colorful representation of what they expect their final cake to look like, from 2 sides, on these pages.  From experience, I know that when working together in a group on such a large project the students need to sketch out the final design first, so everyone knows from the start what the goal is.   This leads to tension in the group later on during cake production. The questions from my colleague reminded me that I need to put these items on the learning plan to make it clear.

Pic 2 of Revision

The last change was the addition of a class critique of the final cakes. You can find the details of this addition by reading my learning plan “Fondant Cake Decorating: Can We Make a Cake Light Up?”.

One thing that I still need to work on was inspired by my research into creativity and STEAM. “in nurturing and developing creativity, teachers, administrators, and schools must approach creativity within education by developing an interdisciplinary transferral of competences” (Harris & de Bruin, 2017). I have set a goal to connect with the science teachers in the district to work collaboratively in the future with the circuits. This is evidence that even when we think our learning plan is perfected there is always more work to do to keep it current. Lesson planning should never become static.

References:

Harris, A. & de Bruin, L (2017). Secondary school creativity, teacher practice and STEAM education: An international study. Journal of Educational Change, 19(2), 153-179. https://link-springer-com.proxy2.cl.msu.edu/article/10.1007%2Fs10833-017-9311-2#enumeration

Hernández-Saca, D. I., Gutmann Kahn, L., & Cannon, M. A. (2018). Intersectionality Dis/ability Research: How Dis/ability Research in Education Engages Intersectionality to Uncover the Multidimensional Construction of Dis/abled Experiences. Review of Research in Education, 42(1), 286–311. https://doi.org/10.3102/0091732X18762439